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  • Biogas Data
  • Biogas Process
  • Biogas Construction
  • Biogas Scrubbing

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  • Production of Biogas
  • Production of Exhaust Gas NOx
  • Properties of Gaseous Fuels
  • Biogas Data

    Production of Biogas from Fermentation of Organic Waste

    It is estimated that about 28 m3 of biogas is generated for every m3 of palm oil waste in the waste treatment plant of palm oil mills.

    In the palm oil mills, solid wastes are burned directly in the boilers to generate steam. These solid wastes include the fiber, shell and empty fruit bunch (EFB).

    However, there are a large quantity of water based wastes that are not able to burn by themselves. These waste have to be processed or digested in the waste treatment plant in order to comply to the Department of Environment regulations before they can be allowed to be discharged into the water course.

    During the fermentation process, biogas is the unavoidable but valuable gaseous product of such a process. The biogas from this fermentation contains 60%~70% methane, 30%~40% carbon dioxide and a trace amount of hydrogen sulphide.

    The chart below shows the great potential of using palm oil waste to generate biogas.

    Exhaust Gas NOx produced as a result of Combustion of Fuels

    Compared to the burning of diesel fuels, bi-fuels using a mixture of natural gas and diesel oil have shown lower levels of NOx produced and discharged in the engine exhaust.

    This means that bi-fuels are more environmentally friendly and should be encouraged.

    Properties of Gaseous Fuels

    The chart below compares the properties of biogas, natural gas obtained from mining, and liquefied petroleum gas.

    Of special note is the gross calorific value of biogas. It is quite high and comparable to the natural gas found from the gas fields. This is because it contains a high percentage of methane.

    Property Biogas Natural Gas Liquefied Petroleum Gas
    Gross Calorific Value (Kcal/Nm3) 4740-6150 9070 24000
    Specific Gravity 0.847-1.002 0.584 1.5
    Ignition Temperature (°C) 650-750 650-750 450-500
    Inflammable Limits (%) 7.5-21 5-15 2-10
    Combustion Air Required (m3/m3) 9.6 9.6 13.8
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